The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) formerly known as National Open NIOS operates through a network of Departments, Regional Centres and . Contents. Module 1: Environment through Ages. Origin of Earth and Evolution of the Environment ( KB) PDF File Opens in a new window · Environment and. NIOS – Environmental Studies Sr. Secondary Course Study Material & Textbook for UPSC Civil Services Exam, APPSC, TSPSC and Other.
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Page 1. NIOS ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY · MATERIAL pdf Download · Click Here To Download. (E-BOOK) NIOS: Environment And Biodiversity. Contents: Module 1: Environment through Ages Origin of Earth and Evolution of the Environment Environment. (Download) NIOS PDF: Environment-Class General Studies Pre. Cum Mains Study Materials · Books · E-Book · NIOS e- Books.
The subject was then divided into and Earth science, Physical Geography, and a social science, Human Geography. There is now a shared ambition to once again see geography as a whole, in order to understand how humans shape and use the landscape.
Political Science For Senior Secondary XIIth 12th Political science is the study of governments, public policies and political processes, systems, and political behavior. Well, we soon learned that political science is not about the real world but only about those features of the world that can be studied by methods deemed to be scientific. Economics For Senior Secondary XIIth 12th Economics is a science that deals with the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of various goods and services within a particular country.
Economics is at the heart of many issues and problems facing the world today, from poverty and unemployment to inflation, the challenge of sustaining economic growth and the interplay of government, business and financial institutions.
Commerce For Senior Secondary XIIth 12th The study of commerce focuses on understanding the economic environment and on managing different types of business activity within that environment. An understanding of business concepts and theories will be valuable for any career path you may pursue. Breadth studies in commerce cover different disciplines offered by the Faculty of Business and Economics. Due to growing popularity of Commerce stream, it becomes important to know what subjects are generally studied in various Commerce based courses.
All over the world, these subjects are taught by different names. Accountancy For Senior Secondary XIIth 12th Accountants help to ensure that firms are run more efficiently, particularly from a financial point of view; that a country's public records are kept accurately; and that taxes are paid properly and on time.
An accountant's job is to compile, analyze, and evaluate financial information.
This includes the completion of entries into accounts, such as general ledger accounts used for documenting business transactions. Humans have altered the ecosystems according to their own needs without thinking about the consequences. Their need combined with greed have caused much damage to the environment, which will affect the coming generations.
The expansion of agriculture, urbanization and industrialization needed the land which was obtained by large scale clearing of forests.
The deforestation has changed the scenario of developed and developing countries, and has brought out vast changes resulting into a various environmental problems. In this lesson you are going to study about deforestation, its causes and effect on environment. Module 4: Contemporary Environment Issues. Developmental activities such as construction, transportation and manufacturing not only deplete the natural resources but also produce large amount of wastes that leads to pollution of air, water, soil, and oceans; global warming and acid rains.
Untreated or improperly treated waste is a major cause of pollution of rivers and environmental degradation causing ill health and loss of crop productivity.
In this lesson you will study about the major causes of pollution, their effects on our environment and the various measures that can be taken to control such pollutions. It is well known that various human activities have caused damage to land, air, water and organisms that inhabit them.
The degraded environment in turn poses a serious threat to affect human health and social well-being. In developing countries like India the biological contamination of food, water and air with germs has remained a health menace.
Introduction of toxic chemicals and harmful radiations has created new types of potentially serious health problems. Developmental projects have led to pollution of the environment resulting in different type of health problems. Some of those will be discussed in detail in this lesson. In nature catastrophes such as floods, drought, earth quake, tsunami, happen from time to time causing immense damage to life and property. It is important to devise means and methods to manage and minimise from natural disasters as far as possible.
Disasters caused by human activities such as fires, accidents, epidemics are no less sudden than natural disasters and may be equally devastating. In this lesson you shall learn about causes, effects, prevention and management of natural as well as human made disaster. By now you are familiar with the term environment. You are also aware that the environment has no geographical boundaries. Whatever damage is done to the environment at a place it affects nearby or even distant places.
These effects show up immediately or slowly. The explosive growth of the human population has been accompanied by rising expectations and increase in the standard of living. More food, more houses, more transport, more energy and more of everything is required. This growing human need has resulted in depletion of natural resources; deforestation, loss of biodiversity, water and energy scarcity, increasing exploitation of mineral resources etc. It is important to identify and address important issues to conserve and improve the environment.
NIOS – Environmental Science Study Material & Textbook for UPSC Civil Services PDF
Some major national environmental issues such as land and forest management, water scarcity, energy, fast depletion of natural resources and many other will be discuss in the lesson.
There is much to celebrate and appreciate about the world we live in. It includes our environment. However, mostly due to our actions we are altering the very environment, which sustains us. It would be very difficult for us to live in an unfriendly environment. This lesson exposes you to the various global environmental issues or concerns and possible strategies to cope with them.
A wide variety of living organisms including plants, animals and micro-organisms with whom we share this planet earth makes the world a beautiful place to live in. Living organisms exist almost everywhere from mountain peaks to the ocean depths; from deserts to the rainforests. They vary in their habit and behaviour, shapes, sizes and colour. The remarkable diversity of living organisms form an inseparable and significant parts of our planet however, the ever increasing human population is posing serious threats to bio-diversity.
In this lesson we shall learn the ways humans are causing loss of biodiversity and the efforts that are being taken or need to be taken to protect and conserve the biodiversity. Resource is anything useful or can be made useful to humans to meet their needs. The resource that is directly available for use from nature is called natural resource, which includes air, water from rainfall in lakes, rivers and wells, soil, land, forest, biodiversity, minerals, fossil fuels etc. Thus natural resources are supplied by our environment.
When human population was small and they lived a controlled and moderate life, the resource use was limited. But increasing population and economic activity resulted in excessive material consumption is putting heavy burden on natural resource base and that is causing severe damage to the environment.
Soil erosion and land degradation together, constitute one of the major problems that disturb the ecological balance of the world. In this lesson, we will discuss the causes of soil erosion and land degradation. You will also learn about remedial measures that can be taken to reduce or prevent soil and land degradation. You have already learnt in the previous lesson 16 that water and energy are required for survival of all organisms.
You have also learnt that there is growing shortage of water and energy which limits growth and development. Human beings, through overexploitation of water resources have made water scarce.
Pollution of natural water bodies such as sea, rivers, lakes etc. The problem of growing shortages of two essential resources namely water and energy can be solved only through their wise use and effective conservation.
In this lesson, you shall learn about water and energy conservation. Humans have made a very impressive economic progress, specially during the past two centuries, in creating material and luxuries of life style. This progress has been achieved at a tremendous cost to the environment. Ever increasing exploitation of natural resources coupled with environmental degradation has reached a point that now threatens the well being and future of mankind. Environmentalist and even the common man around the world are seeking answers to this question like - can we keep up industrial and economic development without depleting or degrading our natural resources?
Can forests be cleared endlessly for cultivation and habitation?
Can agricultural land be regularly used up for building, cities, factories and shopping malls? Can intensive farming be carried out through the year? Can fossil fuels be pumped out in a never-ending manner? How long can our natural resources last at the increasing rate of exploitation and consumption?
In this lesson we shall learn about the concept of sustainable development. Modern agriculture has made impressive contribution in increasing food grain production in the country.
The country could achieve self-sufficiency in food grain production by using modern methods of agriculture using better quality of seed, proper irrigation and adequate supply of plant nutrients by using chemical fertilizers and control of pests and diseases in crop plants by using pesticides.
It has also involved modern cultivation practices using tractors, combine harvesters and tube wells for irrigation.
Rapid growth in food grain production from using seeds of high yielding variety is termed as Green Revolution. Protection of air, water, soil and human health while producing bumper crops should be the prime concern of modern agriculture. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fibre and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and raising of domesticated animals.
Agriculture has changed dramatically, especially since the end of World War II. Food and fibre productivity has increased by using new technologies, mechanization, increased use of fertilizers and pesticides and expansion of irrigation facilities.
These changes allowed farmers with reduced labour demands to produce the majority of the food and fibre. Although these changes have had the positive effect of these practices have also caused some serious environmental and social problems such as erosion of top soil depletion and pollution of groundwater contamination, unemployment of farm labourers due to their replacement by increasing use of farm machinery in agriculture operations.
Industrial revolution resulted in the production of a large number of goods and services for the convenience of people.
Life became much easier and comfortable. But large scale industrial production resulted in accumulation of huge amounts of wastes, which in turn created pollution of air, water, land and adversely affected plant and animal life.
The environment of earth is loaded with wastes much beyond its carrying capacity.
(Download) NIOS PDF : Environment-Class-12
The volume of waste and out of service goods and gagets over loaded and pollution must be controlled in order to provide a healthy environment for man and other animals. The awareness and consideration for environment covers several environmental issues such as pollution of water, air and soil, land degradation, industrialization, urbanization, depletion of natural resources etc.
Environmental Law plays a very crucial and important role in regulating the use of natural resources and in protecting the environment. The success of environmental legislations mainly depends on the way they are enforced.
Legislation also serves as a valuable tool for educating masses about their responsibility in maintaining healthy environment. Every country strives to progress ahead one aspect of progress is economic development through manufacturing and trading. Every country builds industries which provide employment, serve the consumers needs and help to generate revenue.
Development projects in the past were undertaken without any consideration to their environmental consequences. As a result rivers and lakes got polluted; air pollution reached at threatening level and pilling of industrial wastes resulted in land degradation.
Industrialization and economic growth provided material comforts and luxuries of life but at the same time deteriorated the quality of life. The role of national government is critical for control of environmental pollution control, conservation and improvement of environment for promoting sustainable development. To address the diverse environmental issues a number of environment related institutions and organization have been setup at international, national level by United Nations, national governments and civil society.
An environmental organization is an organization seeks to protect, analyze or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation or lobby for these goals. Environmental organization may be a government organization, a nongovernment organization, a charity or trust.
Environmental organizations can be global, national, or local. This lesson provides information on leading environmental organizations, both within and outside the government, working for the conservation and improvement of environment at global and national level. You have learnt about the basic concepts of environment and the environmental issues.
You have also learnt about the need for conservation and management of natural resources.
The earth is one, but the world is not. We all depend on one biosphere for sustaining our lives. Yet each community, each country, strives for survival and prosperity with little regard for its impact on others. It is our fundamental duty to make this planet earth a decent habitable place. The challenge of living in harmony with the earth is as old as human society itself.By now you are familiar with the term environment. Developmental activities such as construction, transportation and manufacturing not only deplete the natural resources but also produce large amount of wastes that leads to pollution of air, water, soil, and oceans; global warming and acid rains.
Some major national environmental issues such as land and forest management, water scarcity, energy, fast depletion of natural resources and many other will be discuss in the lesson. To address the diverse environmental issues a number of environment related institutions and organization have been setup at international, national level by United Nations, national governments and civil society.
The environment of earth is loaded with wastes much beyond its carrying capacity. Nausea and headaches were part of life. From bad to good, we live in a better life knowing history. Whatever damage is done to the environment at a place it affects nearby or even distant places.
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