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Ecological Indicators, 6 1 Dalton, H. Diegues, A.
Dominguez, J. Salvador, BA, Brasil. Ehrenfeld, J. Ecological Engineering, 15 — Ewart-Smith, J. Water Research Commission, Report No.
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ISBN: Franklin, S. Ecological Indicators, Gilvear, D.
Journal of Environmental Management, 42 4 Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41 Lugo, A. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, This sanctuary is a wetland designated in as a RAMSAR site and considered the main reproductive site for black-necked swans globally Schlatter et al. The mortality and emigration of the swans concurrently with pulp mill operations rapidly became a nationally prominent environmental conflict in Chile.
The population of black-necked swans decreased from 8, individuals in April to about individuals in June Some 50 swans were found dead during for unknown causes collisions and shot birds were not considered in this count ; they were emaciated with a low content of plant material in their stomachs and with iron-specific stained spots in their liver cells Jaramillo Lopetegui et al. The cause of the seaweed die-off was This article is protected by copyright.
All rights reserved 12 A c c e p t e d P r e p r i nt determined to be iron contamination Pinochet et al.
The above events challenged the system of environmental impact assessment in Chile. Leading experts from academia, government, non-government organizations NGOs , and the pulp mill industry were actively involved in resolving this issue, which clearly affected the environment, economy, and welfare of the region.
Notably, this sanctuary was the first Chilean RAMSAR site designated because it was a high abundance-nesting site for black-necked swans. The land-marine transition environment is anticipated to have one of the greatest loads of chemical contamination due to the transport of contaminants in water from upstream sites and the direct contamination load from marine activities near the coast.
This enhances the need for improved assessments of chemical contaminant effects on biodiversity especially regarding PAs attributes. The swans and pulp mill issue promoted a relevant discussion about the role of Chilean environmental policies and regulations Jaramillo Lopetegui et al.
These have the potential to affect individuals and populations initially regarded as protected. Most of the recent debate about the effectiveness of conservation strategies is based on agricultural production.
For example, substantial arguments have been stated about the opposing biodiversity conservation strategies such as land sharing integration of conservation and production or land sparing separation of conservation and production i. Green et al. Unfortunately, the mobilization of significant levels of contaminants through the air or carried by water make the debate about land sharing and land sparing artificial since apparently PAs located near the major commodities production projects, cities or intense agricultural areas are not going to be free of pollution effects.
Thus, diminution of pollution and contamination at the source appear to be the most logical step in order to deal with pollution inside PAs. It is clear that not all cases of chemical pollution inside PAs are reported. We expect that in the near future this database will expand so we can better assess this issue.
A common factor among three of the four case studies except for Argentina is the fact that chemical contamination issues in the PAs were focused on metals. Other compounds, such as emerging contaminants i. Moreover, half of the case studies showed an absence of pollution effects assessment. In the Chile case study, mitigation activities have This article is protected by copyright.
All rights reserved 14 A c c e p t e d P r e p r i nt been developed. Previously, pollution has been considered in recommendations for mitigation of acid rain effects in PAs in Europe Phillips, and work has been conducted to assess light pollution effects on PAs i.
Aubrecht et al.
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Pollution is mentioned in reports and scientific papers related to biodiversity conservation inside PAs, however, in depth assessments to understand impacts on biodiversity were not a major focus of these documents in Latin America or globally. Assessment of the relative impact of chemical pollution on biodiversity is a requisite to better assess the impact of this issue. Nonetheless, there is no estimation of the relative impact of chemical pollution on biodiversity in Latin American PAs.
Latin American countries with less land area have less PAs, highest human density, and the highest impact on biodiversity loss Table 1. These factors increase pressure on biodiversity and ecosystems and therefore challenge the PAs idea in protecting natural resources such as freshwater wetlands, land-marine transitional environments estuaries and coastal wetlands , and marine environments.
Generally, chemical pollution is only mentioned and implicitly recognized in PAs when the impact on biodiversity including population declines is clearly evident, as was the case with the black-necked swans.
This reactive approach needs to be changed to a monitoring approach where fate, transport, and toxicity of chemical contaminants are considered. There is clearly a pressing need to develop explicit programs to assess the current extent of chemical pollution in PAs neighboring large urban areas, or areas with agricultural, industrial, and aquaculture production. Aquatic environments might be the most threatened habitats within PAs in Latin America as shown in these case studies.
Because wetlands sustain biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services Zedler and Kercher, , they have become PAs. However, if wetland PAs does not address explicitly water pollution as a concern by monitoring chemical contaminant concentrations and effects in the aquatic environment, one of the most basic ecosystem services the provision of clean water will be lost.
Research and monitoring must go beyond the mere identification of contaminants. They must This article is protected by copyright. Chemical contaminants reach PAs from multiple direct and indirect sources, including water and air.
Assessment and, where necessary, mitigation, will not be easy and will require much larger efforts than have been undertaken to date. For example, in the case study from Lake Chapala Mexico , an international agreement pursuing environmental cooperation among Canada, the United States, and Mexico highlighted the necessity to assess transboundary pollution.
This may be generally necessary for all PAs. Nevertheless, the situation of the RAMSAR sites reviewed here indicated that international agreements do not necessarily improve the PAs outcomes with regard to pollution.
Two of the four case studies examined here are RAMSAR sites, a PA denomination based on an international agreement between contracting parties to protect wetlands of global importance. Frazier early determined that for RAMSAR sites in the Neotropical ecozone a region that essentially included all Latin American countries , pollution was the most commonly reported factor of change affecting the ecological character of these wetlands.
This emphasized the vulnerability of aquatic environments due to chemical pollution and demonstrates that this is a widespread issue in the region. The effects of chemical pollution in Latin American PAs challenge their effectiveness to protect biodiversity and ecosystems functionality. Public calls for action e. But reactive management is inadequate and inefficient; by contrast there is a clear and pressing need for more proactive approaches.
Collaboration among eco-toxicologists and protected area managers is crucial for understanding contaminants effects on PAs performance.
Specifically, we recommend that for all PAs there would be an initial assessment of potential sources of specific chemical contaminants that are not restricted to metals. This should be followed by site-specific assessment and monitoring of chemical contaminants of potential concern in appropriate environmental matrices water, sediment, tissue along with biological effects assessments.
Only by collecting appropriate and necessary information can informed management decisions be made to proactively protect the biodiversity and function of Latin American and other PAs. Open J Water Pollut Treat Blood biochemistry reveals malnutrition in black-necked swans Cygnus melanocoryphus living in a conservation priority area.
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Diversity Distrib Biodiversity conservation: The key is reducing meat consumption. Sci Total Environ The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods. Ann Rev Environ Resour Tributyltin TBT effects on Ocinebrina aciculata Gastropoda: Muricidae : imposex development, sterilization, sex change and population decline.Clausen, J. For example, in ovo and in vivo exposures of C.
Mar Ecol Despite the difficulty to prove pollution effects on free-range species populations, there are numerous illustrious examples in the scientific literature. Pollution is mentioned in reports and scientific papers related to biodiversity conservation inside PAs, however, in depth assessments to understand impacts on biodiversity were not a major focus of these documents in Latin America or globally.